We know all the instruments that are traditionally used in endodontics, but we know how these are classified? What are the latest developments in the market as far as endodontic instruments are concerned? In this article we briefly organize a classification of the instruments used in endodontics in a traditional way and comment on some novelties.
According to the classification that you consult in the bibliography of the great authors, some will establish the different categories of instruments that are used to carry out an endodontic treatment, According to Kuttler they are divided in: instruments of trepanation, of biomechanical preparation and instruments of root filling. However, we consider that Grossman has made a more detailed classification: instruments for exploration, for debridement, instruments for enlargement and instruments for obturation. However, we have organized it differently, although taking into account your guidelines and updates in the specialty.
Classification of endodontic instruments:
Instruments for exploration and diagnosis in endodontics
In some bibliographic sources, they refer to this type of instrument as instruments and diagnostic material. We could even include here the typical and infallible mirror, the cotton clip and the explorer, accompanied by an endodontic explorer:
- Diagnostic game.
- The Explorer DG-16: facilitates the location of the entrance orifice to the root canals. With two ends and long tapered tips at right and obtuse angles. (Not to be used for inserting into conduits or for heating or introducing to condense the gutta-percha). The anatomy of the tooth dictates the most common places where the tooth canals are located, but pulp stones, calcifications or restorations that have taken place previously can alter the anatomy of these canals, so the endodontic explorer is extremely useful.
- Pulp testers: the elements used for thermal tests to determine the response of the dental pulp when an electrical, thermal or mechanical stimulus is applied.
Instruments for Opening the Root Canal
The trepanation can not be the same in all teeth, so there are instruments to access the pulp chamber specific for each tooth, as each has special characteristics that must be taken into account for the amputation of the pulp chamber. Among them we have:
- Round burs and truncated cone burs.
- Gates burs: Used to achieve pre-stretch. They have a short, flame-shaped cutting end with slightly spiral side cutting blades. The head is connected to the stem by a thin, long neck.
- Spoons or Excavators: Used mainly for dentine removal.
nstruments for Enlargement
In this sense, they are those that can be introduced without problems into the root canal. Among them we have:
With the introduction and use of an endodontic motor, we also involve rotary files. If you want to know more about files, visit our All you need to know about manual Endodontic files and another article about Rotary Files where you will find all the detailed information about files.
- Thyranervices : are an element of nerve removal, not an element to widen channels. It is formed from a cone-shaped metal tip that is flaked with metal. In this way, the tiranervios enters the canal cleanly, but when it comes out it is hooked with the pulp tissue, pulling it out and extracting it from the canal. For this use, a thicker tiranervios is used that fits loosely into the canal. Always loosely into the carcass, otherwise the risk of carcass fracture increases considerably. They are also known as barbed probes and must be single-use.
- Files: There are different types of files. Files type L, Files Hedstroem... For example, the mission of the K Files is to widen the channels of the tooth. This type of file is introduced little by little in the channels of 1/2 turn in 1/2 turn while pressing against each one of the walls so that the friction widens the channel. The process is repeated against each of the walls until the diameter of the channel is large enough to use a file of the next size. This process should not be done too quickly as the channel must be sufficiently wide before proceeding with the next file. The file must be cleaned repeatedly during use.
With the introduction and use of endodontic motor, we also involve rotary files. If you want to know more about files, visit our All you need to know about manual Endodontic files article and another article about Rotary Files where you will find all the detailed information about files.
Instruments for Root filling
There are many materials and instruments that revolve around root canal filling, such as spacers, obturators, guttaperchas and even lighter and spatula.
- Spacers : there are two types, digital spacers and manual spacers. Spacers themselves allow a space to be opened in a conduit during root filling, to place the gutta-percha accessory cones and thus achieve total obliteration or sealing of the conduit.
- Condensers: allow to cut the cones of gutta-percha and to carry out the vertical condensation.
- In the obturation step, although they are not instruments as such, we include gutta-perches, absorbent gutaperchas, paper point and cements.
Instruments for dental isolation
In endodontics is fundamental, dental isolation Its routine use will contribute greatly to the success in many treatments. below we mention everything you need to perform dental isolation.
- Rubber Dam: The installation of the rubber dam takes a few minutes, but the benefits easily outweigh it. It is essential for moisture control, improves visibility and protects the oral, labial and lingual areas of the oral cavity. The increased visibility and protection it offers makes the operation much more effective.
- Dike drill.
- Clamps and Clamp Holders
- Young's Arch.
In addition to the insulation, there are other accessories that are used in endodontics and that without them we could not perform the root canal treatment correctly. Among them we have the rules for measuring the depth of the root canal, lighters, spatulas to mix, glass tile, rubber or silicone stoppers, sponges and many more. If you want to know all the instruments and materials used in Endodontics, visit our Endodontics category.