As already mentioned in our previous article "All you need to know about endodontic files: (I) Manual files" here comes the continuation.
As time went by, endodontics was modernized to give rise to more powerful technologies around the needs of dentists. For this reason, rotary or mechanized endodontic files were created to help prepare the root canal in a more comfortable and practical way, but without turning our backs on manual files, that is, taking them as a supplement that facilitates endodontics.
In addition, modern endodontics not only has rotary files as mechanized instruments, but also a great variety of devices to facilitate endodontic treatment, such as endodontic motors, apex locators, among others.
Do not miss in detail the main characteristics of each of them.
Rotational Endodontic Files
Rotary files can be continuously or reciprocally rotated..
Non-cutting tipped files in most sizes.
2. Wave One (Dentsply Maillefer).
These files shape the root canals by means of a back-and-forth movement (reciprocal asymmetric movement), which means that they continuously change their direction of rotation during the forming procedure with a large rotation angle in the cutting direction and a smaller angle in the reverse direction (to progress along the path of the canal, respecting the anatomy of the root). They are single-use in order to respect the new standard of protection. They are divided into three varieties:
- The WaveOneTM PRIMARY (025 .08)file (025 .08) is designed to fully prepare most root canals.
- The WaveOneTM SMALL file (021 .06) is used to further advance in replacement of the K 010 file, or we can include the lower incisors, the MBII ducts of the upper molars and/or the ducts with apical curvatures.
- The WaveOneTM LARGE file (040 .08) will be used to replace the K 020 file if it reaches the expected length or we can include the upper incisors, the premolars with a single duct and some molars with larger diameter ducts.
After the Wave One files, the Wave One Gold system was designed in 2015, with 70% more flexibility than the primary system and providing greater channel preparation safety. The files are available in three classic lengths: 21, 25 and 31 mm and have a short 11 mm handle to improve access to the posterior teeth. In addition, it shortens root canal preparation time by 23% and further reduces clinical fatigue.
Differences between the two systems:
- The Wave One system is made in M-wire and the new Wave One Gold has a thermal treatment after its manufacture, obtaining a new alloy, called GOLD.
- The Wave One system has a pure convex triangular section from D9 to D16 and modified from D1 to D8, whereas the Wave One Gold system has a parallelogram section with 85º edges.
3. Protaper (Dentsply Maillefer, Tulsa, Okla.).
With convex triangular cross-section with rounded edges and slightly negative cutting angle. At the beginning of the active part, in D1, the taper is 0.02 mm/mm, but every 2 millimetres until D16 is reached, the taper increases by 0.02 mm/2mm. They are divided into two groups:
- SHAPING FILES. 14mm active part remodelling instrument for punching movement. At the same time they are divided in:
- SX (golden ring, to widen the coronal third of the duct). Being the shortest of all files (19 mm), has a diameter in D1 of 0.19 mm.
- S1 (lilac ring, to widen the coronal and middle third of the duct). With an apical diameter D1 of 0.17.
- S2 (white ring, to widen the middle third of the duct). With a diameter of D1 of 0.20 mm.
- FINISHING FILES. Finishing instrument to increase the diameter of the canal to make the apical stop in the root canal. According to the manufacturer these files should only be used once, but some studies show that they can be used a greater number of times. Available in 21, 25 and 31 mm and with 16 mm of active part and constant conicity in the 3 mm apicals. They are divided into several groups:
- F1. Yellow ring, ISO 20, conicity 7% and a diameter in D1 of 0.20 mm
- F2. Red ring, ISO 25, taper 8% and a diameter in D1 of 0.25 mm
- F3. Blue ring, ISO 30, taper 9% and a diameter in D1 of 0.30 mm
- F4. Black ring, ISO 40, taper 6% and a D1 diameter of 0.40mm
- F5. Yellow ring, ISO 50, taper 5 and a D1 diameter of 0.50 mm
4. Protaper Next Niti. NEW in endodontic rotary files. Why? Take a look!
5. Easy Race (Reamer with Alternating Cutting Edges).
Reamer with Alternating Cutting Edges.
- Inactive tip, which ensures good guidance and centering.
- Triangular cross section. Allows better penetration and cutting.
- Square cross section in small caliber files (15-.02 and 20-.02).
- With "Safety Memo Disc (SMD)" system that facilitates counting the number of uses of each instrument. It has 8 petals that are discarded as it is being instrumented. Once all the petals have been eliminated, discard the file.
- They are divided into two groups: PreRaCe and RaCe.
6. GT / Profile (Great Tapers)
- They have a greater conicity than ISO instruments..
- They are made of nickel titanium
- The manuals have a triangular section and cut in counterclockwise rotation and the rotary section in "triple-U" allowing the dragging of particles and at the same time, they are kept centered in the duct.
- They have an inactive tip and are available in 17, 21, 25 and 30 mm lengths.
- Two sets of files are available: the standard set and the set of accessory files. The standard is used in most cases because most of the ducts measure approximately 0.20 mm in apical diameter. And the accessories are only used in a few cases.
7. Maillefer/Denstply Profile.
Discover Maillefer's Profile range of files.
8. Quantec Series 2000.
They are manufactured in tapers: 0'02, 0'03, 0'04, 0'05 and 0'06mm. And in various free: #15, #20, #25, #30, #35, #40, #45, #50, #55 and #60.
- Cross section with asymmetrical design and slightly positive helocoidal cutting angle.
- They are marketed in two types of tips: SC, facetted and cutting, and LX, rounded and inactive for wide ducts.
9. Profile Series 29.
These files and reamers use a different calibration system, with a constant 29% increase between tip diameters. This provides a smooth and progressive channel expansion.
- Inactive tip.
- For manual or mechanized use.
- From caliber 20 to 110, including intermediates such as 22.5, 27.5, etc. up to number 60.
10. Hero 642 (Hâute Elasticiteé en Rotation) (Micro Mega).
Files with inactive transition angle. With helix of three points, it serves to channel the dentin remains. helically towards the crown.
- The 6% taper files are manufactured in lengths 21 and 25 mm, while the 4% and 2% taper files are available in 21, 25 and 29 mm.
11. K3 Endo (Sybron Dental Specialties).
They are the evolution of Quantec files since McSpadden and Kerr engineers have participated in their design.
- Variable helocoidal angle.
- Triple grooved.
- More efficient than files with neutral or negative cutting angle.
- Passive safety tip. Helps to avoid steps.
- Taper from .02 to .12. in lengths 21, 25 and 30 millimeters.
- Available sizes: #15, #20, #25, #30, #35, #40, #45, #50, #55 and #60.
Files ideal for narrow ducts. HyFlex files are manufactured using a unique process in which the crystallographic phase moves from austenite to martensite at room temperature. They are divided into four systems:
- Hyflex EDM. Depending on the clinical situation, the use of HyFlex EDM files is reduced to 2-3 files, especially in straight and larger channels. All NiTi HyFlex EDM files can be used at 400rpm and with a torque of up to 2.5Ncm (25 mNm), with the exception of Glidepath files, which can be used at 300 rpm and with a tightening torque of up to 1.8 Ncm (18 mNm).
- Hyflex EDM / CM. For channels with medium curvature, a combination of HyFlex EDM and HyFlex CM files (500 rpm; 2.5 Ncm (25 mNm) is recommended.
- Hyflex CM. The single length technique, in which all files are used except the Opener Orifice short, up to the working length, allows precise and anatomically accurate preparation with HyFlex CM files. Again, all files can be used except the Opener Orifice up to the working length (500 rpm; 2.5 Ncm (25 mNm).
- Hyflex GPF (Glidepath). The HyFlex GPF are designed for navigation and establishment of the working route in the duct, guaranteeing optimum shaping of the access path thanks to their controlled memory. They are characterized by their excellent durability and resistance to breakage.
13. Twisted File
The TF technique includes only 3 files per box, perfectly adapted to the type of tooth you are treating: 1 set for anterior teeth, another for premolars and molars. Triangular stem.
Files specially designed for root canal catheterization
- Active NiTi tip.
- Before using Pathfile instruments, establish a path to the apex with manual files, at least up to 10 (ISO).
- Available in sizes: 013, 016 and 019.
Each manufacturer has its own system of files with unique properties, so there are plenty of them, but these are the most used so far. Did you like this article about rotating files? Do you prefer the traditional method of manual instrumentation or do you prefer the use of rotating files? Share your experience with us on social networks: What rotating files do you use? What has it been like to work with them? We are waiting for you!.