When choosing a dental cement that is suitable to your dental practice needs, it is quite essential to bear in mind a couple of ideal characteristics, for instance relating to their biological or mechanical properties. At present, there is no product that fully meets the above two, which is why it is necessary to have a good understanding of the different type of cements currently on the market and the characteristics of each one of those. However, let's go step by step and first look into a little introduction to this topic.
In dentistry, cement is defined as the material formed by the mixture of different components, usually powder and liquid, which in a fluid state applies between two surfaces and sets while acquiring mechanical strength and toughness. These cements have two main objectives: to keep the restoration in position for an indefinite period of time and to prevent micro leakage between the cementitious material and the tooth.
In cementation, a fundamental principle is observed, which is the friction between the tooth and the restoration, and for it to be correct, certain requirements must be met. This includes resistance to solubility and minimum film thickness, so that dissolution by the action of saliva and exposure to the oral medium are minimal. This cementation process consists of the union of three surfaces: tooth, cement and prosthesis. This adhesion is defined as the chemical electrical force generated between two materials of different chemical composition. Thus, depending on this, cements can be classified into two large groups: conventional or conventional/non-adhesives and adhesives.
Both groups exert friction between the surfaces, however there are a series of characteristics that differentiate them between each other. Adhesive cements have the ability to better adhere to the irregularities of tooth surfaces and tissues, improving their retention and marginal sealing capacity. Conventional cements have mechanical retention and are not able to interact intimately with dental abutments.
For fixed restoration cements, the main objective is to seal the virtual space between the preparation and the restoration, thereby increasing the friction surface and retention.
In addition to bonding surfaces, dental cement should act as a barrier to prevent bacterial filtration and oral fluids. To achieve this it must be a material that is resistant to external agents.
Most cements are supplied in two components group: Powder, liquid, A-Paste B, or capsules for automixing, with the exception of resin cements (as we will see below).
In general, the reaction between the components is an acid-base reaction, after which they acquire the necessary strength for use as a base, as pulp protectors, permanent or temporary restoration, or as a cementitious agent.
Types of dental cements
To help you choose the most suitable type of dental cement, Dentaltix has prepared a series of articles on the main types of cements.
Dental cements can be classified according to their chemical composition and clinical application: